I have had some interest and discussion about “learning styles” and decided to post the notes from my learning styles workshop. Before I begin with the notes, I feel I must give some background explanation about the learning styles described.
Several years ago, “Multiple Intelligences” was very popular. I presented workshops on the intelligences during that time. I found, in the classroom and in my experience with children (and adults), that most will have a strength in one or two areas and if given the opportunity to learn in that type of environment, the child had less frustration, less failure, and much greater success.
In updating research for this workshop, I found that pretty much, “anything goes” when it comes to the learning styles. A lot of information was given for three basic learning styles: Visual, Tactile (Kinesthetic), and Auditory. It is true that everyone will fall under one of these modalities of learning; however, as a teacher, and now as a homeschool parent, I feel responsible for giving my child the best possible education, so I want to take it a step further, and look at the “multiple intelligences” as learning styles.
There is one other point I want to make before “giving you the goods.” In the multiple intelligences, interpersonal and intrapersonal are listed. The interpersonal is the person who likes to work in groups and with others. The intrapersonal is the person who would rather be alone. I have found, that for the most part, everyone is either a “people” person or a solitary person. There are those of us, who, depending on the “mood” will at times crave time to ourselves, and at other times crave the company of others. My scores on the “inventory,” in these two areas, are very close together, so as an adult, I can read my mood and know which I prefer. If you have a child who scores closely on these, it is a little more difficult to discern the best environment for that day! If this is the case, simple ask, “Do you want to work with ___ today, or would you rather find a quiet place and work alone?” Even young children of 3 can express what they are feeling.
It is important to know your own style of learning and your weak area, so you can be aware of how your thinking differs from that of your child.
Points to Remember:
* Everyone has all the styles of learning to some degree!
* You can strengthen each style through exposure!
* The inventory is meant as a snapshot in time – it can change as people grow and mature and exposed to experiences. You may choose to do the inventory annually or bi-annually.
* Knowing your learning style and the styles of your children is meant to empower you to better instruct. This is not meant to label you or your child.
You can print the inventory here: Learning Styles Inventory If you have children too young to read and answer the questions, you will find a pair of smiley faces at the end of the inventory. Print them, or make your own, and let your child hold up the thumbs up for yes and the thumbs down for no, as you read the inventory aloud.
What are the different learning styles?
Verbal-linguistic is how we use language. The verbal-linguistic learner has well-developed verbal and written skills and sensitivity to the sounds, meanings and rhythms of words, and can express one’s thoughts and feelings with clarity so others may comprehend, understand, even enjoy them.
Strengths of children with verbal-linguistic learning style:
They understand words and language very well and have well developed vocabularies
They use language well and can learn the complex rules of language quickly
They use language to remember and think
They can express themselves very well in both oral and written forms
Exercises and Suggestions for
- Reading, Writing, Narrating – Stories, Sequels, Poems, Drama, Jokes, Descriptions, News Reports
- Encouraging – Debates, Declarations, Impromptu Speech (on current affairs, life, practically everything)
- Starting – a Newsletter, Magazine, Journal
- Conducting – Mock Interviews, Chat Shows, Role Plays, Dramas, Story Telling
- Solve – Puzzles, Crosswords, Vocabulary Games
- Preparing and Giving Presentations
- Creating Slogans, Debates, Case Studies, etc.
- Keeping a Vocabulary Journal
- “Finish the story” type activities
- Pretend to be journalist or investigative reporter and write an article
- Come up with slogans for the topic of study and write a commercial
- Write a script about the topic
- Write a poem/prose about topic being studied
- Provide them with books about a variety of topics
- Have access to references (whether in book form or internet)
- Encourage them to read the newspaper and ask you questions about what they do not understand
- Encourage them to keep a diary
Materials to have available for children with linguistic learning style:
Books Paper/Notebooks Pencils/Pen
Newspapers Magazines Word games
Encyclopedias Dictionary Thesaurus
Examples of how to teach various topics to children with linguistic learning style:
- Make sure your child uses proper grammar and writes correctly.
- Write and read different styles of literature: prose, poems, songs, biographies, etc.
- To teach math, use word stories as much as possible.
- When they do a problem with equations, tell them to describe aloud each operation they have to carry out. “To calculate the square of the sum of two numbers a and b [(a+b)2], first I have to take a and multiply it by itself [a2] and then I have to take b and multiply it by itself [b2] and then I have multiply a with b and then with 2 [2ab]. Then I have add all these three together [a2 + b2 + 2ab].”
- To teach concepts, talk about the discovery behind the concept. Who was the scientist, how did they come to the conclusion. For example: Teach gravity by telling children the story of an apple falling on Newton.
- Talk about science concepts by encouraging your child to describe what happens during an experiment or what would happen in different situations or if the conditions were different. Have them talk through and journal the concepts/experiments.
- Have them write essays on field trips or discoveries. Example: If they go to the zoo, tell them to write an essay on what they saw, in detail – the features and habits of the animals and birds, why do you think God created this animal the way He did?
- Teach children words and phrases like “Hello”, “Thank You” and “Good night” in multiple languages and associate them with those countries.
- Take fieldtrips to nearby geographical interests. For example: Go climb a nearby mountain and ask them to describe the terrain, the rocks, the vegetation etc., as you climb. Write about the experience when the trip is over.
- Have children pretend to be a drop of water and describe or write their journey from the mountains to rivers to oceans to clouds to rain and back to the mountains
- Have your child describe the changes made in the world throughout history. For example: changes in clothing that have taken place since the early 20th century to today
- Have your child make a speech to you about events in history. Example: the rights given to each individual by the Indian constitution.
Mathematical/Logical is how we understand, manipulate, and use numbers, logic, and reasoning. The mathematical/logical learner has the ability to think conceptually and abstractly, and capacity to discern logical or numerical patterns.
Strengths of children with logical-mathematical learning style:
Find order in complex situations – classify, sequence, find patterns
Problem solving through logical breakdown and analysis
Easily manipulate numbers
Identify cause and effect
Exercises and Suggestions for
- Make graphs and charts of information
- Mapping skills
- Time lines/sequence
- Classification skills
- Design geometric architecture
- Create agendas, and schedules ·
- Allow these students to create graphs to track time and weather ·
- Create logic problems/ investigations
- Keep logic and math puzzles, games, brainteasers for free learning
- Encourage opportunities to discuss numbers both inside and outside of maths and science.
- Research projects – collecting statistics and analyzing them
- Measurements and surveys
- Complex scientific and mathematical theories
- Experiment to discover cause and effect
- Classify various objects using diagrams – Venn diagrams, trees etc
- Using abstract symbols and formulas
- Any type of calculation
- Make them think through the reason behind everything
- Keep asking them questions to help them get to the root of the issue
- Help them breakdown what they learn into multiple steps and help them identify the connections between each step
Materials that you should have for children with logical-mathematical learning style:
Puzzles – especially mathematical ones Number games like Sudoku
Ordering, sequencing toys Calculator
Measurement instruments Paint-by-number pictures
Letter puzzles – anagrams Science experiments
Examples of how to teach various topics to children with logical-mathematical learning style:
- Create language learning plans that clearly state the larger objective and word the objective in a way that is logical. For example, a learning objective can be defined as, “Gaining the ability to successfully use vocabulary in everyday conversation or during the dinner conversation with your father. With this larger objective clearly stated, logical-mathematical thinkers will be motivated to learn. Without it, they will get bored with the tedious work of memorizing vocabulary words.
- Allow opportunities for you L/M learner to “figure it out.” Use words games and puzzles. (Some even use math.)
- While most of us do not enjoy “graphing a sentence,” m/l learners will be comfortable analyzing complex sentence structure. Other ways to analyze sentence structure could be making a list of each word part in a paragraph. List the nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, conjunctions, etc.
- In questioning literature, play simple investigative games that will lead the learner to draw conclusions. Young children can do “predictions.”
- Begin taking part in debates and discussions using target language/vocabulary words.
- In study, help them create lists of key points from the material.
- Use statistics and other analysis to identify areas of concentration.
- Help them think “systematically.” What are the links between different parts of the system? For example: What is the link between two characters in a story? What is the relation to the parts of a sentence?
- Comic strips are a great reading source for children who are logical/mathematical. The mathematical arrangement of panels on a page draws their attention. For younger learners, cut apart comic strips from the newspaper and have them place them in sequential order.
- Children with logical-mathematical intelligence find mathematics very easy. However, when teaching mathematics focus on the logic behind what they learn rather than teaching them by rote
- Use sequence, measurements (temperature, lengths, hours, etc.) One idea: Have your child measure the temperature outside your house and inside your house, every hour of the day, for a few days. Let them deduce a formula for how to calculate the temperature inside based on the temperature outside.
- Anything that can be learned through numbers or formulas will be helpful. For example: Learn the periodic table as a series of numbers, by defining and finding the patterns for atomic weight and atomic number.
- Classify, sort, group, graph. Example: Give them a set of different flowers and have them classify them based on various characteristics, or buttons, or rocks, or foods, etc.
- Do geographic comparisons that use numbers or logic. Example: Have your child gather statistics on the economy of different countries and have them connect the economic performance to social indicators (average lifespan, number of hospitals per 1000 people, literacy rate). For younger children, have them find the difference in land mass, populations, number of crops, etc.
- Focus on sequential happenings in life. Example: Trace in reverse the path of the foods they eat, the path of a creek to a river, to an ocean. How land formations for your area have changed over the years.
- Use timelines! Calculate times between events in history.
- Analyze the reason behind similar historical events – World War I, World War II, the Russian-Afghanitan War, the India-Pakistan war etc., and analyze the reasons that triggered the wars
- Do historical comparisons to today. Example: Have the learner compare the sizes of ancient cities to modern-day places. Find maps and compare.
- Look at time signatures, beats per minutes, etc.
- Look at music from a fractional point of view.
Musicality is how we relate to sound, music and patterns, to be able to listen and absorb sounds, to be able to think in rhythms and patterns, and to recognize these and manipulate them. Musical learners have the ability to produce and appreciate rhythm, pitch and timber.
Strengths of children with musical learning style:
They have great listening skills and pick up on nuances very easily
They are attracted to interesting sounds and music
They can identify rhythms and patterns in virtually everything
They internalize and absorb information in patterns and rhythms
Exercises and Suggestions for
MUSICAL AND AUDITORY LEARNERS:
- Compose songs/tunes using taught concepts. Like vocabulary words and meanings in the form of a song.
- Listen to music from the time period you are studying in history.
- Have music playing while studying. Be cautious as the type of music playing. Musical learners are more sensitive to emotion based on the music being heard.
- Make rhythmic rhymes with words/concepts
- Many times, these are auditory learners. Read out loud, have audio readings
- Write a musical about the topic being studied.
- Read text out loud—especially when proofreading or when tired
- Create musical jingles and mnemonics to aid memorization
- Working with numbers and number theory as they grow up. (It is believed some great mathematicians were musical, because they could see patterns in the numbers before making them into formulas and equations.)
- Learning different languages and grammar
- Learning, ciphering and deciphering codes and symbols
Materials that you should have for children with musical learning style:
Dr. Seuss books Song and rhyme books
Number games Word pattern games
Visual pattern games Puzzles
Games using symbols and codes Music from all over the world
Examples of how to teach various topics to children with musical learning style:
- Play number games, word pattern games
- Scrabble, Boggle (games that involve adding numbers)
- Help them find patterns in everything they see and learn
- Use poetry
- Read with a rhythm
- Schoolhouse Rock
- To teach math concepts, set them to music. There are MANY math concept songs free online.
- When they do a problem with equations, tell them to sing aloud each operation they have to carry out.
- Make up songs/tunes for science concepts: Example: (To the tune of Frere Jacques- PRESCHOOLERS came up with this:)
Evaporation, evaporation, water disappears, water disappears, it goes up in the sky, it comes back down as rain, and then it goes again, and then it goes again.
- Make a musical (drama with singing dialogues) about scientists and what they discovered
- Use tuning forks, water, sand etc., to make up experiments revolving around sound
- Teach about various countries and cultures, by playing various kinds of music (drums are one example)
- Teach children the national anthems (or at least the tunes) of a few countries around the globe
- Show them the patterns in rock formations, river meanderings, etc.,
- Show them how musical instruments evolved over time
- Watch old movies with your children and discuss the various sounds in the movies – the hooves of horses striking the road, the whistle of steam trains, the way people spoke etc.,
- Make up songs about various historical events
- Listen to period music from the time of study.
- School house rock!
Visual-Spatial is how we visualize and represent a spatial world in our mind, using concepts like form, shape, color, etc. and manipulate it or understand how things will impacted in a spatial dimension when we change something. Visual-spacial learners have the capacity to think in images and pictures, to visualize accurately and abstractly.
Strengths of children with spatial learning style:
They visualize things very well in their minds
They can mentally visualize manipulation of objects and analyze what the impact of any changes will be. (What will a geometric shape look like turned?)
They have very active imaginations and can easily create new worlds in their minds (may appear to be day dreaming)
They can manipulate and play with physical objects very well and have mature fine motor skills
They can also express themselves very well by creating/drawing physical forms
They tend to move around as part of their learning process (may not be able to sit still.)
Exercises and Suggestions for
- Look at the one speaking. Have a clear view so you can see body language and facial expression.
- Use colorful highlighters to mark important information in your text.
- Take notes and make handouts
- Use visual materials such as colorful pictures, charts, maps, and graphs
- Use multi-media such as computers or videos
- Study in a quiet place, not to be distracted
- To better focus on material, visualize information as a picture
- Discuss the topic being studied.
- When studying or memorizing material, write it over and over
- Keep pencil and paper handy so you can write down good ideas
- Use many shapes and objects in any way possible.
- Draw, paint, and color.
- Give them a visually stimulating environment where things are within their sight and reach.
- Give them a lot of physical objects to play with, clay, paper, balls, blocks etc.,
- Give them access to a diverse set of materials that can be put together to create whatever they visualize.
- When explaining things to them, take a piece of paper and draw on it to show them rather than using words.
- Use a lot of gestures when you describe things – tall, short, happy, sad etc.,
- As you are riding in your bike or car, point out various things to them so they can immediately capture a picture of it in their minds
- Lapbooks are a wonderful teaching tool for visual/spatial learners
Toys and materials that you should have for children with spatial learning style:
Blocks (like a bucket of legos) Crayons, pens, pencils
Geometry sets Globe
Glue/gum, Paper – for drawing
scissors Chart paper –
Thicker paper for folding into shapes Picture books
Games like Pictionary Camera (for older kids)
Objects of all kinds; in other words, a lot of toys – from doctor’s kits, to planes, and cars, to model houses, these kids need to see things. So get them access to as many different things as possible.
Examples of how to teach various topics to children with visual-spatial learning style:
- Get them books which use pictures more than words
- They enjoy imaginative stories like fairy tales, etc.
- Use story mapping. They draw the story while it is being read.
- Make a pictorial dictionary of vocabulary words
- When reading them books, refer to the picture often and let them associate your words with the pictures shown
- “Paint a picture” for them is an apt expression. Help them imagine the environment or the objects in their mind as they read or learn about them.
- Make Word art and use word forms.
- To teach math concepts, use household objects like toothpicks, game chips, rocks, paper clips, etc., that they can move around and count.
- Use real,3-dimensional objects to teach dimensions (length, width, area, volumes), pick up an everyday object and show them which is which.
- When learning math concepts, help them “visualize” the problem. Example: With equations, help them visualize the numbers or variables as objects. If they are calculating the square of a number “x”, tell them to visualize that there “x” trees in a row. Then tell them to think that the walk past that row of trees and another row of trees appears. When they walk past “x” such rows, they will have seen “x-square” trees.
- Imagine and draw inventions (past and present, and future)
- Create collages and collections.
- Take a walk in a park and point out and discuss the various differences in nature: Compare/contrast trees, plants, seeds, and birds
- Help your child make simple experiments to understand various concepts. Example:To illustrate the concept of density, show them how an egg sinks in plain water but as you add salt to the water, the density changes and the egg starts rising to the surface and finally floats
- Have them keep a pictorial journal of experiments (These can be photographed or drawn)
- Take things apart to see what they look like inside (including dissection)
- Look at or make models of how things work
- Creating objects with their own hands
- Go to museums to see various exhibits
- Build models of landforms using different medias : cardboard, paper, different colors, clay etc., complete with rocks, trees and vegetation
- Make clay or cardboard models of various historical monuments
- Let them draw maps of the places being studied.
- Look at art/design from various regions.
- Paint old historical scenes
- Make clay or paper models of various tools used by ancient civilizations
- See pictures of sculptures, paintings and statues from history
Bodily-kinesthetic is how we use various parts of our body or even our whole body to make something, find a solution to a problem or to convey meaning. Bodily/kinesthetic learners have the ability to control body movements and to handle objects skillfully.
Strengths of children with bodily-kinesthetic learning style:
They respond very well to physical stimulus
They have excellent physical skills – gross motor skills and fine motor skills
Their bodies have great flexibility and agility
Their hands have dexterity
They tend to move around as part of their learning process (may not be able to sit still)
They tend to be outgoing, by nature
Exercises and Suggestions for
- Use moving, touching, experiencing to help aid in learning.
- Solve problems by physically working through them.
- Actively explore the world around them.
- Offer the opportunity to be in motion most of the time
- Allow doodling while listening, studying to help with processing information
- Take frequent breaks and utilize brain breaks
- Allow for their willingness to try new things/adventurous
- Allow for drawing and building designs, art, cooking, construction, engineering, sports, mechanics, and using appliances and tools
- Make studying more physical—work at a standing desk, chew gum, pace while memorizing, read while on an exercise bike, squeeze a tactile ball/stress ball, sit on an exercise ball.
- Use bright colors to highlight reading material
- Play music in the background while studying
- When reading, first skim through the whole thing to get a feel for what its about, then read the chapter carefully
- Use spatial note taking techniques such as mind mapping
- Visualize or physically plan complex projects from start to finish before beginning—this will allow you to keep the big picture in mind
- Scavenger hunts
- Help them remember what they have learnt by associating it with hand gestures, body parts, mimes etc.,
- Give them an environment that is stimulating, where things are within their sight and reach
Materials that you should have for children with bodily-kinesthetic learning style:
Manipulative toys Construction sets, Legos
Modeling media (clay, dough) Science experiment kits
Puzzles Dance music
Various kinds of props to use in their dramatizations
Outdoors gear – good shoes, bags to collect samples (rocks, feathers, plants, flowers etc.,), storage for keeping the specimens they collect
Sports equipment – bats, racquets, balls
Examples of how to teach various topics to children with bodily-kinesthetic learning style:
- Participating in dramas
- Play vocabulary charades
- Act out/dramatize literature
- To teach math concepts, use a variety of manipulatives
- Physically work out math problems.
- Have your child do a role play about science
- Conduct science experiments – home chemistry, simple physics etc.,
- Have your child learn concepts by drawing or acting them out: flight, draw experiments, etc.
- Do active science things like Gardening, cooking (chemistry), etc.
- Take hikes to experience science concepts in nature.
- Teach your child some dance moves from other countries
- Have your child make up hand gestures for various geological formations that they have to learn about
- Take them on hikes to different land forms.(Mountains, hills, valleys, near fault lines, etc.)
- Help your child make a drama about historical events.
- Dress up like historical figures.
- Play charades to learn about various historical occurrences
- Use scarves, hula hoops, etc and move to music. Go UP when the music goes up, down when the music goes down
Naturalist is the learner who loves the outdoors, and he or she will excel at science activities that involve nature and outdoors. The naturalist has the ability to recognize and categorize plants, animals and other objects in nature .
Strengths of children with naturalist learning style:
Identify with nature and living organisms
Find patterns and attributes across a variety of organisms
Collecting and organizing items
A keen eye for detail
Ability to distinguish between similar items and find minute differences
Exercises and Suggestions for
- Collecting natural organisms – feathers, leaves, flowers etc.,
- Organizing collections
- Using scientific gadgets – telescope, microscope etc.,
- Environment related activities – recycling etc.,
- Learning about nature
- Visiting various natural locations and places where they can mingle with nature (including farms).
- Relate everything they learn to nature
- Help them think through how what they learn impacts the world
- Assist information recollection using categories, types, segments, attributes, rules of thumb etc.
- Have a school day at a local nature habitat (In the woods, Audubon centers, by a pond or lake, on the river bank)
Toys and materials that you should have for children with naturalistic intelligence
Magnifying glass Telescope Microscope
Reference books about birds, insects, animals, plants, flowers etc.,
Scrapbooks, labels, glue, scissors etc., for organizing collections
Examples of how to teach various topics to children with naturalistic intelligence
- Use nature guides and field guides to read
- Read nonfiction books about nature
- Write essays and stories dealing with nature
- Read in an outdoor setting
- Even in traditional/classical literature, point out the natural settings or natural features of the book.
- Connect all concepts to nature. For example, relate mathematical progressions to how plants grow, relate sets and Venn diagrams to types of flowers and how they share certain characteristics and not others
- Give them books to read about math discoveries from nature. For example; the story of Pi.
- Point out mathematical influences in nature – Example, the various geometries in natural formations
- Explain how various scientific concepts relate to nature – For example, connect physics concepts like energy to solar power and the environment, organic chemistry to plastics and their impact to earth, discuss various laws of physics (Newton etc.,) that explain how the planetary system works
- Help your child make collections of various natural organisms
- Touch and observe nature
- Teach them about the natural terrain/characteristics/flora and fauna/creatures of the area being studied.
- Learn about farming techniques in various climates.
- Study how geographic growth has impacted animal and bird populations
- Take field trips to interesting geographic locations in your area: lakes, streams, natural springs, hills, fault lines, highest/lowest point, weather conditions, etc.
- Discuss how natural events influenced the course of history. For example, talk about disease outbreaks in various ancient civilizations, weather/natural disasters
- Learn about how various government policies have impacted nature
- Take field trips to historic sites in your area: observe the terrain, animals, etc.
- Look at how sounds in nature impact different types/sounds of music. Example: bird songs, insect calls, rain, etc
- When you must be indoors, play music with sounds of nature or sounds of nature cds.
Interpersonal is how we relate to other people. It is about understanding them, working closely with them, cooperating and conveying to them what we are trying to say in a way they understand. The interpersonal learner has the capacity to detect and respond appropriately to the moods, motivations and desires of others. This is considered an “extrinsic” and outgoing personality. To remember the meaning, think about interacting with other people.
Strengths of the interpersonal personality
They love being with people and relate to them very well
They like working in teams to accomplish tasks
They can lead very well
They also show concern and empathy for others
They can make very persuasive arguments
Exercises and Suggestions for
- Working with other children, especially those younger to them
- Meeting and getting information from various people
- Collaborative activities/ Cooperative learning
- Love talking about themselves or what they do, with other people
- Helping others – volunteering
- Interacting with family/friends
- Monitoring “rules” and “practices” in the household
- Assign activities that require them to meet and interact with people
- Expose them to a wide variety of people and the roles they play and the skills they have
- Let them do “role play”
- Let them explain to you what they have learnt or discovered – listen carefully (even if it is something you already know) and interact with them. You could make this a daily event, occurring at breakfast or dinner.
- When explaining or teaching things, try to insert multiple characters and personalities into it
- When traveling or riding around, point out various people and what they are doing eg., vegetable seller to bus driver
- Assign them responsibility to lead a team and discover more information about certain areas or give them a project to make something complex
To help this kind of person keep from being too overbearing in a group setting, have them talk about and journal their own personal thoughts, feelings, emotions, and motives.
Intrapersonal is how we understand ourselves and our emotions, moods, desires, being conscious of who we are, what we want to do, how to react, what not to do and more. The intrapersonal learner has the capacity to be self-aware and in tune with inner feelings, values, beliefs and thinking processes. You can remember this term by thinking of the word introspect, which means to take a detailed mental observation of your feelings, thoughts, motives, emotions.
Strengths of children with intrapersonal Personality:
They can recognize their own strengths and weaknesses
They exhibit confidence and are willing follow their instincts
They are self-starters who can work independently
They are good at setting and tracking goals
They are very good at reflecting and analyzing and need time to achieve this
Have strong likes and dislikes
Have a great sense of fairness
Exercises and Suggestions for
- Keeping records of their activities – scrapbooks, journals, photo albums, diaries, etc.,
- Talking about themselves and their feelings
- Setting their own goals – give them a set of chores and ask them to pick any two that they will do every week, setting timelines for their school projects. Try giving them choices.
- Devotion and prayer times
- Any hobbies or projects that they can do on their own – flower collection, leaf collection, bird watching etc.,
- Treasure hunts that are self-directed
- Analyzing the effects of various events – eg., the impact of current events, what happens to Y when X occurs etc.,
- Relating everything they learn, to real life
- Pretending to be something or someone and expressing how it feels
- Give them time to analyze what they did or what they learned
- Ask them to express their opinions and feelings about what they learned
- Give them a little personal space around their learning process instead of hovering over them
- Let them analyze their own strengths and weaknesses in each subject and create a learning plan to address their weaknesses while reinforcing their strength
To help this person keep from becoming too focused on “self”, offer and encourage opportunities to be with other learners. Have them think about the impact their decisions have on others.